CALT Encyclopedia
The Encyclopedia of Learning Approaches & Technologies

 digital identity

Digital identity

Notes: The content of this area was done as part of the FIDIS? project. project_fidis-xs.jpg

Sub topics:

Related topics: profiling, biometric, privacy, user modeling (and personalisation), online social networking (self-exposure)

Highlights collapse


Definition collapse


Initiatives working on defining Identity in the Information Society

  • signal.gif FIDIS (Future of Identity in the Information Society) project_fidis-xs.jpg

    • FIDIS is a NoE (Network of Excellence) supported by the European Union under the 6th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development within the Information Society Technologies (IST) priority, which objectives are shaping the requirements for the future management of identity in the EIS (European Information Society) and contributing to the technologies and infrastructures needed.
    • Note: An Identity Wiki has been defined in this project aiming at defining the different identity concepts.
  • The Identity Gang

    • The Berkman Institute at Harvard Law School
    • Designing a Wiki supporting a conversation about the Identity Metasystem and how this relates to a vision that many people share of what might be called user-centric identity.
  • Defining Identity Theft in Canada

    • This Web site attempts to address the problem of little published research that organizes and classifies clear definitions of what identity theft and identity fraud mean, by developing specific terminology to be used in the associated ORNEC projects.
  • ...

Events collapse


Interesting articles (magazines) collapse

Interesting articles (magazines)

Blog postings

Articles, news, etc. (Magazines)

  • note: see also the miscellaneous section for news on RFID, profiling, spying, etc.
  • The Looming Facebook Privacy Fiasco

    • by Jason Kincaid, TechCrunch July 1, 2009
    • Facebook’s privacy conference call just ended, and it’s clear some major changes are going to be coming to the social network soon. Some of these, like a totally revamped privacy control page, are both long overdue and very welcome. But others, like the Transition Tool, seem ripe for disaster.
  • AOL apologizes for release of user search data

    • by Dawn Kawamoto and Elinor Mills, CNET, August 7, 2006
    • When AOL released the three-month search histories of some 650,000 users, it provided a rare glimpse into their private lives.
  • Gates to demonstrate new search software

    • by Ina Fried, CNET, May 16, 2006
    • Microsoft's technology tries to ease that task by looking through workers' e-mail and other data and then automatically generating working profiles.
  • Jail time for phone record scammers?

    • by Anne Broache, CNET, February 8, 2006
    • Anyone who "fraudulently" acquires and resells records of calls made by a telephone subscriber could face fines of up to $500,000 and prison sentences of up to 20 years, under a bill proposed Wednesday in the U.S. House of Representatives.
  • FAQ: When Google is not your friend

    • by Declan McCullagh?, CNET, February 3, 2006
    • FAQ Google's recent legal spat with the U.S. Department of Justice highlights not only what information search engines record about us but also the shortcomings in a federal law that's supposed to protect online privacy
  • Ercim News SPECIAL THEME: Security and Trust Management

    • ERCIM News No. 63, October 2005
  • Google automates personalized search

    • by Enor Mills, CNET, June 28, 2005,
    • Google on Tuesday launched a new version of its personalized search that monitors previous searches to refine future results.
  • To catch a thief

    • by Tom Zeller Jr., The New York Times, via CNET, June 25, 2005
    • Indicates a use of profiling technologies? to detect ID fraud
    • Resource indicated by Mireille Hildebrandt, VUB
  • Consumers, retailers grapple with data theft

    • by Joris Evers, CNET, June 22, 2005,
    • like Simitian, Feinstein believes that notification is "vital to affording individuals the ability to protect their identity and their credit," she wrote. Feinstein has introduced a bill in the U.S. Senate that would require that consumers be notified of certain types of security breach.
  • Be a Gaming God for Dollars a Day

    • by Daniel Terdiman, Wired News, June 23, 2005
    • About renting out high-level characters for popular online games
  • These walls (and teddy bears) have eyes

    • by Michael Kanellos, CNET, June 9, 2005
    • Though the system is geared mostly toward providing parents with better information about their kids, there is an entertainment aspect to the monitor as well. The pictures taken nightly by the camera can be strung together to form a composite video charting the baby's development.
    • A prototype teddy bear developed by the same group, meanwhile, contains a hidden video camera.
  • Study: Shoppers naive about retail prices online

    • CNN, June 1, 2005
    • Most American consumers don't realize Internet merchants and even traditional retailers sometimes charge different prices to different customers for the same products, according to a new survey.
  • IBM software aims for both security and privacy

    • by Steve Lohr, The New York Times, via CNET, May 24, 2005
    • The new product goes beyond finding relationships in different sets of data. The software, which IBM calls DB2 Anonymous Resolution, enables companies and government agencies to share personal information on customers and citizens without identifying them.
  • Personal data for the taking

    • by Tom Zeller Jr., The New York Times, via CNET, May 18, 2005
    • As part of a computer science and security project (Johns Hopkins project) and working with a strict requirement to use only legal, public sources of information, groups of three to four students set out to vacuum up not just tidbits on citizens of Baltimore, but whole databases: death records, property tax information, campaign donations, occupational cense registries.
    • Several groups managed to gather well over a million records, with hundreds of thousands of individuals represented in each database.
  • Microsoft to flash Windows ID cards

    • by Joris Evers, CNET, May 18, 2005
    • The Redmond, Wash.-based software giant plans to release a technical preview of the software, code-named InfoCard?, by the end of May, Microsoft said.
  • FAQ: How Real ID will affect you

  • Microsoft to plug ID controls into Windows

    • by Reuters, posted in CNET, March 29, 2005
    • Microsoft will build software for managing identities into Windows (called "info-cards") in order to beef up security by giving users more control over their personal information.
    • While Microsoft's earlier plans involved the use of centrally stored information beyond the computer desktop, the info-card system will keep data stored on a personal computer, Microsoft said
  • EU goes on biometric LSD trip

    • by Kevin Polisen, The Register, Thursday 3rd February 2005
    • In December 2004, the European Commission adopted the biometric passports directive, a regulation that mandates the use of [biometric facial images?] within 18 months and fingerprints within three years for all [passports?] issued.
  • States to test ID chips on foreign visitors

    • by Alorie Gilbert, CNET, January 26, 2005
    • The U.S. Department of Homeland Security plans to begin issuing special identification devices to foreign visitors arriving by foot and by car by July 31, according to a Tuesday announcement from the agency
  • Federal agent raps ISPs over cybercrime

    • by Will Sturgeon, CNET, January 25, 2005
    • Speaking at the Computer and Internet Crime Conference in London, FBI agent Ed Gibson, who is an assistant legal attache
    • to the U.S. Embassy, expressed concerns that national boundaries are still too much of an obstacle to law enforcement?.
  • eBay revokes Microsoft's Passport

    • by Robert Lemos, CNET, January 19, 2005
    • Online auctioneer eBay officially has notified customers that it will no longer allow them to log on through Microsoft's identity management service, Passport.
  • Prescription for digitized health records

    • by Steve Lohr, The New York Times on the Web, via CNET, January 19, 2005
    • The information on a patient inside a doctor's office, the report contends, must be capable of being sent across the network freely to hospitals, laboratories, [speciasts, insurers and researchers, if the promise of improved care and reduced costs are to be achieved.
  • Worried about Wi-Fi security?

    • by Matt Hines, CNET, January 19, 2005
    • "But what these people don't understand is that if someone else starts using your network to browse whatever they want on the Web, it's going to come back to your IP address.". In one instance, a Los Angeles man pleaded guilty in September to distributing pornography spam e-mails, sent out using other people's Wifi? connections, which he accessed from inside his car.
  • ... archive of older articles

Interesting articles collapse

Interesting articles

Articles, papers, etc. (academic)

Documents and books collapse

Documents and books

Documents, reports

  • For Your Information: Australian Privacy Law and Practice

    • ALRC report 108, August 2008
  • signal.gif booklet: Identity in a Networked World

    • FIDIS Noe, 2006
    • This booklet presents a set of identity issues in a variety of context via the use of cases and scenario.
  • Unlinkability, Undetectability, Unobservability, Pseudonymity, and Identity Management – A Consolidated Proposal for Terminology

    • Andreas Pfitzmann and Marit Hansen, Feb. 15, 2008. (updated a numerous number of time)
  • i2010 eGovernment Action Plan: Accelerating eGovernment in Europe for the Benefit of All

    • Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, ..., 26/04/2006
    • The Commission hereby presents its eGovernment Action Plan, an integral part of its i2010 initiative for jobs and growth in the information society, to make a major contribution to the Lisbon Agenda and other European Community policies.
  • Open to Exploitation: American Shoppers Online and Offline

    • Annenberg Public Policy Center report, June 1, 2005
    • Sixty-four percent of American adults do not know that it is legal for online stores to charge different people different prices at the same time of day for the same product. This Groundbreaking new study explores this and many other shopping rules that all Americans need to know in order to protect themselves from online and offline exploitation.
    • Resource indicated by Mireille Hildebrandt, VUB
  • Microsoft's Vision for an Identity Metasystem

    • Microsoft Corporation, May 2005
    • Resource indicated by Christian Geuer-Pollmann, Microsoft
  • Towards Understanding Identity

    • eema, Identity Technologies & Services Interest Group, September 2004
    • Paper lead by David Goodman - IBM,
    • The objective of this document is to address the fundamentals underlying the definitions and understanding of identity based on the assumptions and experience known from the real-world in order to map them on to the requirements emerging from the digital world. The same approach will be taken with the processes associated with identity, primarily registration and validation - creating and then proving identity.
    • Note: This document is only available to eema members (and has been made available to the Fidis consortium). Contact [eema?] to check the possibity to access this document.
    • Resource indicated by David-Olivier Jaquet-Chiffelle, VIP
  • The IBM Global Business Security Index

    • a monthly report of threats to computer networks in an effort to establish an indicator similar to the federal government's [Homeland Security?] Advisory System.
  • The Ernst & Young Global Information Security Survey 2004

    • Ernst & Young, September 2004
    • The 2004 Ernst & Young Global Information Security Survey questioned 1,233 leading organizations in 51 countries.
    • "It is becoming increasingly difficult for organizations to retain control over the security of their information and for senior management to grasp the level of risk being faced" and organizations may be protecting themselves against the wrong threats or, at least, not protecting themselves against the most obvious threat of all: employees and other people with internal access to data.
  • Identity Management Embraces The Future

    • by Steve Hunt, Forrester Research, June 21, 2004
    • Identity management vendors are finding ways to move into new market niches. BMC's new partnership with Consul is the latest example of a successful identity management vendor adding security event management. BMC sets itself apart, however, by joining ranks with a leader in [compliance management?].
  • Emerging Identity Management Prospects

    • Datamonitor report, ref: DMTC0976, 14 May 2004
    • Analyse the IDm products and services market for North America, Latin America, EMEA and Asia Pacific.
    • $2295
  • US FTC Survey of Identity Theft

    • FTC, September 3, 2003
    • FTC Releases Survey of Identity Theft in U.S. 27.3 Million Victims in Past 5 Years, Billions in Losses for Businesses and Consumers.
  • Americans and online Privacy: The System is Broken

    • Annenberg Public Policy Center report, June 25, 2003
    • Do Americans understand the purpose on internet privacy policies? Do they know how websites use information about them? Do they trust government to protect their personal information? The Annenberg public policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania's provocative new report, Americans and online Privacy: The System is Broken, addresses these specific questions
  • Rapport Parlementaire N° 0938 - Les méthodes scientifiques d'identification des personnes à partir de données biométriques et les techniques de mise en oeuvre (in french)

    • M. Christian Cabal, Assemblée Nationale, France, juin 2003
    • Rapport de l'Office parlementaire d'évaluation des choix scientifiques et technologiques sur les méthodes scientifiques d'identification des personnes
  • Resolutions were adopted at the 25th International Conference of Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners, 10-12 September 2003.

    • These resolution include:
    • 1.Resolution on improving the communication of data protection and privacy information practices
    • 2.Resolution concerning the Transfer of Passengers' Data
    • 3.Resolution on Data Protection and International [Organisations
    • 4.Proposed Resolution on Automatic Software Updates
    • 5.Resolution on Radio-Frequency Identification
    • Resource indicated by Eric Freyssinet
  • NIST Special Publication 800-72, Guidelines on PDA Forensics

    • NIST, August 2004
    • The report details software tools to aid in the extraction of data from handhelds.
    • The primary audience of the PDA Forensic Tool document is law enforcement, incident response team members, and forensic examiners who are responsible for conducting forensic procedures related to digital handheld devices and associated removable media.
  • Who Goes There? Authentication Through the Lens of Privacy

    • Stephen T. Kent and Lynette I. Millett, Editors, 165 pages (approx.), 2003.
    • This report explores authentication technologies (including passwords?, PKI?, biometrics?, etc.) and their implications for the privacy of the individuals being authenticated.
    • As [authentication?] becomes ever more ubiquitous, understanding its interplay with privacy is vital. The report examines numerous concepts, including authentication, authorization, identification, privacy, and security. It provides a framework to guide thinking about these issues when deciding whether and how to use authentication in a particular context. The report explains how privacy is affected by system design decisions...
    • Resource indicated by David-Olivier Jaquet-Chiffelle, VIP

Dissertation work

  • Faceted Id/entity: Managing representation in a digital world

  • PhD dissertation: Electronic capture and analysis of fraudulent behavioral patterns: An application to identity fraud

    • Benjamin Ngugi
    • Expected date of completion: Summer 2005
    • The objective of this thesis is to find a transparent way of mitigating identity fraud at the human computer interface.
    • The thesis will then predict and model the acceptance and adoption barriers that such a new innovation will go through and suggest strategic paths that can be used to overcome such barriers.
  • Degree of Doctor of Philosophy by Submission of Published Work- DATA SURVEILLANCE: THEORY, PRACTICE & POLICY

    • Roger Clarke, at the Australian National University, 1997
  • Proposed PhD dissertation Controlled anonymity on the Internet

    • at COSIC
    • The goal of this thesis is to study and develop solutions for controlled anonymity. Users will normally be anonymous.
    • However, in suspicious circumstances, one will be able to revoke this anonymity? with the help of e.g. a judge. A balance is thus made between the fundamental right of privacy and the possibility of prosecution of criminal activities.
  • Electronic Surveillance: benefits and risks for European Union

  • Dr. rer. nat. dissertation: Security and Privacy in User Modeling,

    • by Jörg Schreck, University of Gesamthochschule Essen, July 2001
    • The methods presented here for increasing security in user modeling systems are used as a basis for the formulation and automatic enforcement of concrete policies on the use of user information through adaptive application systems.
    • They are intended to enable users to make individual adaptations to given policies or to define their own policies. This also enables users to weigh their individual privacy requirements against the added value of the adaptive system.


  • Profiling the European Citizen?

    • M. Hildebrandt, Vrije Universiteit Brussel; S. Gutwirth, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Eds.), 2008
    • In this volume a multi- focal view will be developed to focus upon what profiling is, where it is applied and what may be the impact on democracy and rule of law. The book is the result of research conducted within the framework of the FIDIS (Future of Identity of Information Society) NoE (Network of Excellence).
  • L'identité numérique en question

    • Olivier Iteanu, Eyrolles, 2008
    • 10 scénarios pour la maîtrise juridique de son identité sur Internet
  • Internet ou la fin de la vie privée

    • par Les Auteurs Associés - Mai 2007
    • Avec ce livre, disponible gratuitement sur internet sous licence Créative Commons*, les auteurs souhaitent attirer notre attention sur des comportements qui, si nous n'y prenons garde, pourraient porter atteinte à nos libertés.
    • Ce livre est présenté dans Automates Intelligents
  • Biometrics for Network Security

    • by Paul Reid, Prentice Hall PTR; 1st edition (November 17, 2003)
    • Reid (senior product manager, Cryptometrics) introduces the technical capabilities and limitations of computer biometric systems for measuring [fingerprints?], eye characteristics, or other body information as a computer security measure serving a similar purpose to personal identification numbers.
  • Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet

    • Sherry [Turkle, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
    • Turkle studied the way people interact on so-called MUDs? or role-playing games? on the Internet, in which they play fictional characters in equally fictitious "worlds" created with words

Case Studies, Stories and Scenarios

  • Identity Federation. Making Pizza Delivery More Efficient in 2015

    • Referred by Andre Durand
    • An imaginary (humoristic) story of the issues related to identity in the future
  • The Strange Case of the Electronic Lover

    • Van Gelder 1991
    • Gender Switching and Ambiguity in Cyberspace
    • It tells the story of Joan Sue Green, a New York neuropsychologist in her late twenties, who had been severely disfigured in a car accident that was caused by a drunk driver. The accident killed Joan’s boyfriend and left her mute and confined to a wheelchair. But, through the use of her computer, Joan was able to befriend many users and let her bubbly personality shine.
    • The only problem is that Joan had lied and totally fooled people: Joan was not disable, and Joan was a 'man'.

Education (Course & Training)

  • University offers spam and spyware writing course

    • by Will Sturgeon,, February 08 2005
    • The controversial computer science department at the University of Calgary has once again kicked off heated debate in the security industry by offering students a course in writing [spyware?] and the tools for sending and propagating spam.
  • Privacy and Anonymity in Data

    • from the Data Privacy Lab, at Carnegie Mellon University
    • This course introduces students to concepts and methods for creating technologies and related policies with provable guarantees of privacy protection while allowing society to collect and share person-specific information for many worthy purposes


  • Survey on privacy laws in over 60 countries around the world 2004

    • privacyinternational and EPIC have released the 7th annual Privacy and Human Rights report. It finds that governments across the world have substantially increased surveillance in the past year and warns that threats to personal privacy have reached a level that is dangerous to fundamental human rights.
    • Resource indicated by Mireille Hildebrandt, VUB
  • Law: the "Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act of 1998".

    • US government law, As amended by Public Law 105-318, 112 Stat. 3007 (Oct. 30, 1998)
  • Secure Flight

    • is the renamed successor to the Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System (CAPPS) used in the US
  • NSF Program Solicitation: NSF 04-524, Cyber Trust

    • Cyber Trust promotes a vision of a society in which these systems are:
    • (1) more predictable, more accountable, and less vulnerable to attack and abuse;
    • (2) developed, configured, operated and evaluated by a well-trained and diverse workforce;
    • and (3) used by a public educated in their secure and ethical operation.
    • Anticipated Funding Amount: $30,000,000
  • French Law: Décision n° 2004-504 DC

    • Loi relative à l'assurance maladie, et au Dossier Médical Informatisé en France.
    • Décision du Conseil Constitutionnel, 12 août 2004
    • Cette décision valide en particulier l’article 3 du texte, portant sur la création d’un «dossier médical personnel».
    • Voire aussi : Décision n° 2004-499 DC - 29 juillet 2004 sur la Protection des données personnelles
  • Homeland Security Presidential Directive/Hspd-12

    • Subject: Policy for a Common Identification Standard for Federal Employees and Contractors, in the US
  • ...

Information sources collapse

Information sources

Information Sources


  • Privacy Matters

    • Privacy Matters is the newsletter of the Office of the Privacy Commissioner (Australia), keeping you informed of how the Office works to promote and protect the privacy of all Australians. The newsletter is produced quarterly and includes news and analysis of a variety of current privacy related issues.

Journals and Scientific magazines

  • Digital Identity World Magazine

    • A magazine providing comprehensive, in-depth information and perspective on the entire digital identity industry.
  • The Digital ID World Newsletter

    • December 18, 2003 Issue

    • Source for news about smart cards and such related payment and identification technologies as biometrics, PKI, mobile commerce, physical access control and computer network security.
  • Cnet Security

  • Information Security Technical Report

    • ISSN: 1363-4127, 4 issues per year
    • Information Security Technical Report is designed for senior information security managers who need to keep informed on key areas in IT security
  • Privacy Times

    • Privacy Times basically is designed for professionals and attorneys who need to follow the legislation, court rulings, industry developments and horror stories that frame the ongoing debate about information privacy.
    • They cover such issues as the FTC's developing policy for the Internet, credit reports, Caller ID, medical records, 'identity theft', the Freedom of Information Act, direct marketing and the European Union's Directive On Data Protection.
  • Biometrics Market Intelligence (BMI)
  • Biometric Technology Today

    • Biometric Technology Today, a source of authoritative news, analysis, and surveys on the international biometrics market.
  • Sécurité informatique

    • La revue de la sécurité des systèmes d'information au CNRS
  • RFID Journal (magazine)

    • Radio Frequency Identification for Business
  • --- academic Journals (and magazines)
  • IEEE Security & Privacy

    • IEEE Security & Privacy will rethink the role and importance of networked infrastructure and help you develop lasting security solutions by bringing together leading experts on computer security technologies and privacy issues.
  • Journal of Computer Security

    • The Journal of Computer Security presents research and development results of lasting significance in the theory, design, implementation, analysis, and application of secure computer systems and networks
  • Post Identity

    • Post Identity, an international, fully-refereed journal of the humanities, publishes scholarship that problematizes the narratives underlying individual, social, and cultural identity formations; that investigates the relationship between identity formations and texts; and that argues how such formations can be challenged.

    • IDENTITY is a peer-review journal intended to provide a forum for identity theorists and researchers around the globe to share their ideas and findings regarding the problems and prospects of human self-definition
  • Self and Identity

    • Taylor & Francis Group Ltd , The journal of the International Society for Self and Identity
    • Self and Identity is devoted to the study of social and psychological processes of the self, including both its agentic aspects, as well as the perceived and constructed aspects as reflected in its mental representations.
    • The Journal aims to bring together work on self and identity undertaken by researchers across different subdisciplines within psychology (e.g., social, personaty, clinical, development, cognitive), as well as across other social and behavioral disciplines (e.g., sociology, family studies, anthropology, neuroscience).
  • ...
  • --- miscellaneous
  • The Journal of Identity Management

    • Under construction
  • --- electronic newsletters
  • Cipher

    • The IEEE Computer Society TCSP (Technical Committee on Security and Privacy) Electronic Newsletter
  • EPIC Alert

    • online newsletter of the Electronic Privacy Information Center in Washington, DC.
    • Resource indicated by Andreas Pfitzmann
  • INDICARE newsletter

    • Newsletter of DRM (Digital Right Management) in Europe.
    • Resource indicated by Kai Rannenberg, GUF
  • ...
  • --- other Journals (identity is not the central topic)
  • International Journal of Web Based Communities (IJWBC)

    • Focuses on the growing role of the WWW for new types of communities and new ways to let traditional communities survive.
  • The Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication

    • ...

People and organizations collapse

People and organizations


  • Enisa

    • European Network and Information Security Agency
  • IEEE Computer Society Technical Committee on Security and Privacy
  • Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen

    • Joint Research Centre - European Commission, Ispra (VA) Italy
  • EPIC (Electronic Privacy Information Center)

    • EPIC is a public interest research center in Washington D.C.
    • It was established in 1994 to focus public attention on emerging civil liberties issues and to protect privacy, the First Amendment, and constitutional values.
  • The Biometric Consortium

    • The Biometric Consortium serves as a focal point for research, development, testing, evaluation, and application of biometric-based personal identification/verification technology.
  • CNIL

    • La Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertés, France(the french National Commission for Data protection and the Liberties)
    • CNIL is an independent administrative authority in France which mission is to develop expertise, advice, enforce law, etc. in the area of privacy protection.
  • EPCglobal

    • A not-for-profit organization entrusted by industry to establish global standards regarding the development, implementation and adoption of Electronic Product Code (EPC) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology.
  • The Computer Security Division (CSD)

    • NIST
  • eema

    • eema was an acronym for 'European Electronic Messaging Association', but as the focus of both the association and its members changed, the full title was dropped.
  • the International Society for Self and Identity (ISSI)

    • ISSI is a scholarly association dedicated to promoting the scientific study of the human self.
    • The members of ISSI share an interest in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes related to the self-system.
  • ... (to be completed by the members of the FIDIS consortium)

Research Groups, Research Centres

  • Institute of Forensic Research (Fidis participant)

    • Cracow, Poland
  • The IBM Privacy Research Institute

    • The IBM Privacy Research Institute is an organization within IBM Research to promote and advance research in privacy and data protection technology.
  • Forensic Psychology

    • At the University of Surrey
  • Data Privacy Lab

  • the Annenberg Public Policy Center

    • Center for Identity Management and Information Protection
    • Utica College’s CIMIP is a research collaborative dedicated to furthering a national research agenda on identity management, information sharing, and data protection
  • ---
  • GenericIAM

    • GenericIAM (IAM: Identity & Access Management) is a Group of volunteer unified by the common goal of establishing a generic model for the Processes of the Identity & Access Management. They are a not-for profit organisation.
    • Note: GenericIAM has a group in LinkedIn
  • ...


  • EFF (Electronic Frontier Foundation)

    • EFF is a nonprofit group of passionate people - lawyers, volunteers, and visionaries - working to protect your digital rights.
  • The Privacy Rights Clearinghouse

    • The Privacy Rights Clearinghouse is a nonprofit consumer education, research, and advocacy program.
    • Their publications empower citizens to take action to control their personal information by providing practical tips on privacy protection
  • ITRC (Identity Theft Resource Center)

    • ITRC is a nationwide nonprofit organization dedicated to developing and implementing a comprehensive program against [identity theft?] by supporting victims, broadening public awareness, disseminating information about this crime and decreasing the potential victim population.
  • FING

    • Fondation Internet Nouvelle Génération
  • SRIF (The Society for Research on Identity Formation)

    • The Society for Research on Identity Formation (SRIF) is a professional organization devoted to theory, research, and applied work in the area of psychosocial development across the lifespan with a particular emphasis on ego identity formation during the periods of adolescence and adulthood.
  • Statewatch

    • Statewatch is a non-profit-making voluntary group monitoring the state and civil liberties in the European Union
  • The Center For Democracy & Technology

    • The Center for Democracy and Technology works to promote democratic values and constitutional liberties in the digital age. With expertise in law, technology, and policy, CDT seeks practical solutions to enhance free expression and privacy in global communications technologies.

    • Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering
    • (CASPIAN) is a national grass-roots consumer group dedicated to fighting supermarket "loyalty cards?" or frequent shopper cards?. CASPIAN's efforts are directed at educating consumers, condemning marketing strategies that invade shoppers' privacy, and encouraging privacy-conscious shopping habits.
  • the Identity Theft Resource Center

    • ITRC is a national nonprofit organization that focuses exclusively on identity theft.
    • Resource indicated by Mireille Hildebrandt, VUB
  • The Anti-Phishing Working Group

    • The Anti-Phishing Working Group is a volunteer organization that is building a repository of [phishing?] scam emails and websites to help people identify and avoid being scammed in the future.
    • Resource indicated by Mireille Hildebrandt, VUB
  • ...


  • ID Analytics

    • ID Analytics' advanced analytical solutions are used to manage identity risk, prevent identity fraud across the customer lifecycle and comply with new government regulations.
    • Its ID Network Alerts notify clients of suspicious identity-related behavior when the ID Network detects connections between identities that could signal fraud. ID Network Alerts also help with early identification of potential identity fraud victims.
  • PingID

    • The Company's identity federation software (SourceID) provides enterprises, integrators and security software vendors with complete identity federation capabilities ([SAML?], Liberty & [WS-Federation?]).
  • RSA Security Inc.

    • RSA Security Inc. helps organizations protect private information and manage the identities of the people and applications accessing and exchanging that information. RSA Security's portfolio of solutions include identity & access management, secure mobile & remote access, secure enterprise access and secure transactions.
  • Anonymizer

    • Anonymizer privacy software and services
  • ActivCard

    • ActivCard? is a global provider of strong authentication and trusted digital identity solutions for secure remote access, single sign-on and enterprise access cards.
  • Critical Path

    • Critical Path provides the software and services including Identity Management solutions, such as directory integration, password management and user provisioning
  • DigitalPersona

    • fingerprint recognition systems
  • VeriSign

    • Authentication software products
  • Applied Digital Solutions

    • Maker of the implantable [VeriChip? for humans.
  • 2idi

    • 2idi is an identity services provider which mission is to provide users with total control over their identity-related transactions
  • Evidian

    • Identity and Access Management products
  • ... to be completed (Microsoft, Sun, IBM, etc.)


  • Kim Cameron
  • Andre Durand
  • L. Jean Camp

    • Identity in digital government
  • Andreas Pfitzmann (Fidis member)

    • Cryptography and data security
  • Marit Hansen (Fidis member)
  • Kai Rannenberg (Fidis member --- coordinator)

    • Chair professor of Mobile Commerce and Multilateral Security, Frankfurt University
  • ...
  • --- misc
  • Herminia Ibarra (organizational identity)

    • Works on the concept of Working Identity
  • Alfred Kobsa

    • User modeling and privacy
  • danah boyd
  • Richard Beales

    • Revealing identities
  • Dominique Cardon

    • Orange Labs
  • Julien Pierre

    • les identités numériques (Enjeux et pratiques d’une construction identitaire sur Internet)
  • ...

Projects and initiatives collapse

Projects and initiatives


  • The Liberty Alliance

    • The Liberty Alliance's vision is one of a networked world in which individuals and businesses can more easily interact with one another while respecting the privacy and security of shared identity information
  • On the Identity Trail (

    • Initiative principally funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada
    • A central objective of the project is to develop an interdisciplinary dialogue that will generate research results of practical value to policy makers and the broader public.
  • the MIT Initiative on Technology and Self

    • The Internet is a new context for self-exploration and social encounter.
    • Psychopharmacology, robotics?, nanotechnology?, genetic engineering, biotechnology, and artificial intelligence are among the technologies that raise fundamental questions about selfhood, identity, community, and what it means to be human.
  • The Identity Gang

    • Designing a Wiki supporting a conversation about what Microsoft calls an Identity Metasystem and how this relates to a vision that many people share of what might be called user-centric identity.
  • Programme Identités actives

    • par la FING
    • Blogs, réseaux sociaux, "web 2.0", fédération d'identités, portfolios, cartes multiservices, services composites, communautés, univers virtuels… : sur le web comme dans l'espace physique, de nouvelles pratiques et de nouveaux médiateurs viennent transformer l'échange entre les individus, le fonctionnement des groupes, le commerce, la relation avec les institutions et les territoires, les signes et les marques d'appartenance.
    • L'identité numérique est le pivot, le fédérateur de la plupart des nouveaux services, des nouvelles pratiques qui émergent aujourd'hui sur l'internet et le mobile
  • Insafe (Safer Internet)

    • Insafe is a network of national nodes that coordinate Internet safety awareness in Europe.



    • Future of Identity in the Information Society

    • Social and ethical aspects of digital identities. Towards a value sensitive identity management
    • Programme: FP7-IDEAS
    • Objective: The overall aims of the project are to increase understanding of the social and ethical aspects of digital identity management (IDM), to further theorising the concept of identity, and to contribute to the quality and social/ethical acceptability of technological developments.
  • PrimeLife

    • Bringing sustainable privacy and identity management to future networks and services

    • Privacy and Identity Management for Europe
    • PRIME is a new European RTD Integrated Project under the FP6/IST Programme.
    • It is concerned with the issues of privacy and identity management in the information society.
  • RAPID (Roadmap)

    • Roadmap for Advanced Research in Privacy and IDentity management

    • European initiative for a Citizen digital ID solution
    • EUCLID is a project initiated by the Population Register Centre (Finland) to provide resources for management, operational support and information dissemination to the former eEurope Smart Card Trailblazer 1 - Public Identity -.
  • APES

    • Anonymity and Privacy in Electronic Services
    • October 1, 2000 until September 30, 2004
    • APES is a project of the Flemish government aimed at developing tools and techniques for adding anonymity and pseudonyms to on-line services. This program will be tackled both from a technical and from a legal standpoint.
  • GUIDE (IST Integrated Project)

    • Government User IDentity for Europe
    • Creating an European Identity Management Architecture for eGovernment

    • The INformed DIalogue about Consumer Acceptability of DRM (Digital Right Management) Solutions in Europe
    • The overall goal of INDICARE is to raise awareness, help to reconcile heterogeneous interests of multiple players, and to support the emergence of a common European position with regard to consumer and user issues of Digital Rights Management ([DRM?]) solutions.
  • BioSec

    • (IST-2002-001766) is a Project of the IST Priority of the 6th Framework Programme of the European Community
    • BioSec? is the project that will bring deployment of a European-wide approach to biometric technologies for security applications.
  • Cyber Trust and Crime Prevention

    • The Aim of the Project of the UK Office of Science and Technology is to use the best available science to explore the application and implications of the next generation technologies
    • Resource indicated by James Backhouse?, LSE?
  • The InspireD integrated project

    • InspireD is an European initiative dedicated to the future of smart cards?.
    • Resource indicated by Martin Meints?, ICPP?
  • IDEM project

    • Identity Management for eGovernment (IDEM) is project in which technical and legal research institutes work jointly together with the Flemish and Belgian government, to solve the main challenges of Identity Management (IDM) in the Flemish and Belgian eGovernment context.
    • resource indicated by Ioannis Maghiros?, IPTS?
  • KITE (IST)

    • KITE, The European mobile worker’s kit
    • The KITE project was established in the context of the creation and dissemination of the electronic version of Europass, the European Community Framework for the transparency of qualifications and competencies.
  • ...

Miscellaneous Software projects

  • PGP

    • Pretty Good Privacy
  • The Martus Project

    • from the The Benetech Initiative
    • Martus provides for the creation, encryption and secure storage of reports of human rights abuses. The system improves the accessibility of human rights information and helps assure that violations will be recorded and those responsible held accountable.
  • Shibboleth

    • Shibboleth leverages campus identity and access management infrastructures to authenticate individuals and then sends information about them to the resource site, enabling the resource provider to make an informed authorization decision.
  • ...


  • the Higgins Project

    • Higgins is a framework that will enable users and enterprises to integrate identity, profile, and relationship information across multiple systems.
  • ...

Information systems collapse

Information systems


  • ID federation (Federated Identity)

    • Federated identity lets companies securely extend their applications to suppliers and external users
  • The Liberty Alliance Standard

    • The Liberty Alliance's vision is one of a networked world in which individuals and businesses can more easily interact with one another while respecting the privacy and security of shared identity information
  • --- related organizations

    • Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards
  • CEN

    • the European Committee for Standardization
  • ...

Standards (protocols)

  • SAML (Security Assertions Markup Language), OASIS

    • SAML defines XML/Simple Object Access Protocol-based protocol interactions that support real-time authentication and authorization across federated Web services environments.
    • see also a definition from Network World Fusion
  • P3P

    • Platform for Privacy Preferences
    • The Platform for Privacy Preferences Project (P3P), developed by the World Wide Web Consortium, is emerging as an industry standard providing a simple, automated way for users to gain more control over the use of personal information on Web sites they visit
  • Yadis 1.0

    • The Identity and Accountability Foundation for Web 2.0

Standards (data model)

  • HR-XML

    • The HR-XML Consortium is dedicated to the development and promotion of a standard suite of XML specifications to enable e-business and the automation of human resources-related data exchanges.
    • Specifications include: Benefits Enrollment, competence, Contact Method, Education, History, Resume, ...
  • FOAF

    • (Friend of a Friend), XML and RDF format.
    • FOAF allows the expression of personal information and relationships, and is a useful building block for creating information systems that support online communities.
  • Xhtml Friends Network

    • XFN is a simple way to represent human relationships using hyperlinks
  • XDI

    • This new layer of infrastructure enables individuals and organizations to establish persistent Internet identities and form long-term, trusted peer-to-peer data sharing relationships.


  • OpenId

    • OpenID eliminates the need for multiple usernames across different websites, simplifying your online experience.
  • OAuth

    • An open protocol to allow secure API authentication in a simple and standard method from desktop and web applications.
  • Sender ID

    • Sender ID is a technology designed to foil spammers by authenticating an e-mail sender's "@" address, such as "," by checking its underlying, numeric Internet Protocol address.
    • Note: The proposal of turning Sender ID into a standard has been rejected for the moment.
  • Identity Commons

    • A Program for the registration of global and community i-names
  • Sxip

    • The [Sxip Network gives individuals the ability to create and manage their online personas, facilitating single sign-on and informed attribute exchange. Websites and portals can establish deeper relationships with their users while complying with privacy legislation.
    • Any website can easily participate in this loosely coupled, extensible network.
  • Light-Weight Identity (LID)

    • A quite simple, but powerful technology that empowers individuals to keep control over and manage their digital identities.

      • LID is a mechanism for single sign-on (SSO).
      • LID makes vCards always up-to-date with better privacy
      • LID is a password management tool.
    • LID is a foundation for social networking
  • ...


Miscellaneous collapse



  • forums SpywareInfo

    • Has some sleazy web site taken over your browser? Are you getting pop up ads even when your browser has been closed for some time? Are you infected with a spyware? program that refuses to go away?
    • If so, our message board has dozens of dedicated volunteers ready to give you step-by-step assistance to remove the malicious software and regain control of your PC.
  • ...

Systems and Services making use of a user profile

  • Social Networking services

    • Online Social Networking services are helping individuals manage and develop personal or professional relationships.
    • Examples of such systems include: Friendster, LinkedIn, Orkut, etc.
  • blog, wiki
  • Virtual communities systems
  • ... to be completed. (virtual communities, personalized shopping, learning, knowledge management, ...)

Games & online tools

Other references collapse

Other references


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